Weight of 1/5 Persian 'khorine' - ROM2014_14144_2

ROM2014_14144_2

Weight of 1/5 Persian 'khorine'

Medium:Basalt, carved and polished
Geography: Possibly excavated at Naukratis, Egypt
Date: c. 664-30 BC
Period: Late Period to Ptolemaic Period
Dimensions:
0.6 × 1.2 × 0.9 cm, 1.6 g
Object number: 909.80.344
Not on view
Description

Currency in the form of coins was introduced into Egypt during the Late Period, but for most of Ancient Egyptian history a barter-exchange system based on the value of various weights of silver or copper was used.  Goods were valued in terms of how much copper or silver would be required to buy them, and then exchanged for other goods with the same value in metal.  For example, an Ostracon from Deir el Medina, #73, verso, described by Jac Jansen in Commodity Prices from the Ramesside Period (Leiden, 1975) gives an example of a coffin worth 25.5 deben of copper, which was purchased for two goats, one pig, two sycamore logs, and 13.5 deben of actual copper. There are many such exchanges recorded from Ancient Egypt.  Units of grain and oils were also used in exchange-barter.  As in modern economies, rates of exchange varied with supply. The actual weight, in grams, of a deben changed from the Old and New Kingdoms to the Late Period.

In addition to the native system of deben and qedet (one tenth of a deben), the Ancient Egyptians also used Mesopotamian and Greek systems. This weight corresponds to the Mesopotamian system. The city of Naukratis, where a great many weights have been found, had a mixed population of soldiers and traders from the Aegean and Mesopotamia as well as native Egyptians.  Egypt had been conquered, briefly, by Assyria, and was part of the Persian Empireire from about 525 bce until the invasion of Alexander of Macedon in 332 bce; Mesopotamian weights, however, have been found in Egyptian contexts as early as the pre-dynastic Gerzean period.

Stone and bronze weights equivalent to specific amounts of copper were used in everyday market transactions, and could be checked against more official weights kept in temples

Collection:
Egypt
Bibliography:
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